Alloy Steels broad overview

Types of Alloy Steels: Alloy steels are generally classified as low-alloy steels or high-alloy steels. Low-alloy steels have similar microstructures and heat treatment requirements to plain carbon steels and contain up to 3 or 4 % of alloying additions in order to increase strength, toughness or hardenability. High-alloy steels have structures and heat treatments that differ considerably from plain carbon steels. A surumary of a few selected alloy steels is given below.

Low alloy constructional steels: As well as carbon, these contain additions of Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo etc. Nickel strengthens ferrite in solution but also causes graphitisation of carbides. For this reason it is usually accompanied by strong carbide stabilisers such as chromium, which also strengthens ferrite and increases hardenability. The Ni is usually in the majority, with maximum amounts 4.25% Ni and 1.25%Cr, often resulting in air hardenable steels. Tempering in the range 250oC -4000C can result in ‘temper brittleness’, but this can be minimised by additions of 0.3% Mo giving ‘nickel-chrome-moly’ steels, used in axles, shafts, gears, con-rods etc. Some Mn can be substituted for more expensive Ni. (See Table for more details).

Alloy tool and die steels: (B5970 and B54659). These acquire hardness and wear resistance by incorporating carbides that are harder than cementite, while retaining strength and some toughness. They also have high hardenability and the ability to resist the tempering effects of use in hot working dies and from frictional heating in high speed machining operations. Alloying additions include Cr, W, Mo and V, which are strong carbide formers and also stabilise ferrite and martensite.

A typical composition is 18%W, 4%Cr, 1%V, 0.8%C. Quenching from high temperatures (13000C) is necessary, in order to dissolve as much W and C in austenite, for maximum hardness and heat resistance, followed by heating to 3000C – 4000C to transform any retained austenite to martensite then to 5500C to relieve internal stresses and produce carbide particles in a toughened martensite matrix. This martensite is then temper resistant up to 7000C.

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TP Automatic Transmission Flex Plate

20150603Vehicles with automatic transmissions have a flex plate. The flex plates connects the engine and transmission. Most flex plates are made of a thick piece of sheet metal with bolt holes for the torque converter and teeth for the starter. The job of a flex plate is to allow for expansion of the torque converter as engine RPM increases. The constant expansion and contraction of a flex plate over time can result cracks and/or shearing of the flex plate. A damaged flex plate can create serious (expensive) damage. Broken flex plates can not be repaired, they must be replaced. ATP flex plates are made of high quality steel and contain the correct bolt hole spacing and ring gear teeth just like the original part to ensure long life and durability

Product Features:

  • Balanced to factory specs
  • Fit and function like the original parts
  • Restores normal operation

This article comes from Advance Auto Parts edit released

Dehumidifier Vane

Dehumidifier Vane Parameter Table -China Manufacturer


1. Material : GCr15

2. Hardness : HRC 56°-60°

3. Precision : 0.003~0.005mm or custom-made is acceptable

4. Surface Roughness: Ra<0.2

Thickness Width Length Radius
3.200 15.000 19.000 +R4-R0.8
3.200 21.000 19.000 +R4-R0.8

This article comes from plus google edit released

Denison Hollow Vane Denison Hydraulics Oil Vane Pump Vanes

20150527Key Specifications/Special Features:

Denison Double Lips Vane Denison Vane Denison Hydraulic Vane Pump Vane

Denison Vane T6 T7 Series Hydraulic Vane Pump Vane

Denison T6B,T6C,T6D,T6E,T6G;T7B,T7D,T7E,T7Q Series Single Hydraulic Vane Pumps;

Denison T6BB,T6CB,T6CC,T6DC,T6EC,T6EE;T67DB,T67CB;T7BB,T7EE Series Double Hydraulic Vane Pumps;

Denison T6DBB,T6DCB,T6DCC,T6EDC;T67DBB,T7DDBS;ST7 Silent Vane Punps,ST7B,ST7C,ST7D,ST7E Series Triple Hydraulic Vane Pumps;


1.T6C/ T6D/ T6E / T7D / T7B;

2.Material: SKH51, M2, High Speed Steel;

3.Hardness: HRC 60°~65°;

4.Precision: <0.003mm or custom-made is acceptable;

5.Surface Roughness: Ra<0.2.

6.Certification: ISO/TS16949:2009 & ISO9001:2008.

7.Vanes Yearly Output: Around 60000000 pcs.

Thickness Width Length Radius

4.750 11.45 40.600 Hollow

6.335 14.94 48.214 Hollow

6.322 15.67 55.062 Hollow

4.750 13.60 40.600 Hollow

4.000 8.50 27.983 Hollow

This article comes from Chenlong Group Co. Ltd edit released

Cold Work Die Steels


DC53 is a general purpose cold work tool steel with exceptional Toughness, Wear Resistance, Compressive Strength and Temper Resistance. Applications include:

Punches & dies

Draw & forum dies

Shear blades

Shredder knives

Thread & form rolls

Cold heading dies

Mill rolls & slitters


Uniform distribution of fine carbides

Excellent galling & wear resistance

Exceptional toughness & fatigue resistance

High temper resistance to support PVD & nitride surface treatments

Machining & grinding characteristics superior to most other tool steels

Rounds 1/4″ to 20″

Flats 1/2″ to 12″ thick in widths up to 24″

These properties are obtained through its chemistry as well as its unique manufacturing processes of ladle refinement, vacuum degassing and forging methods. DC53 also has excellent machining characteristics and is well suited as a sub-straight for PVD surface treatments. DC53 can also be hot process CVD and TD (Thermal Diffusion) coated however post heat treat is generally recommended.

Primary Carbides

Primary carbides in DC53 are relatively small with highly uniform distribution as compared to other tool steel grades such as D2. This helps to provide DC53 with it’s superior toughness, and fatigue resistances.


2 Primary Carbides

Primary carbides in DC53 are relatively small with highly uniform distribution as compared to other tool steel grades such as D2. This helps to provide DC53 with it’s superior toughness, and fatigue resistances.


This article comes from International Mold Steel edit released


Anti-impact steel





What is the anti-impact steel

Anti-impact steel is stamped with a cold-rolled steel U-shaped groove, connected with the frame rails, automotive passive safety as the first barrier, anti-impact steel is absorbed and ease the external impact, front and rear protective body an important safety device.

The role of anti-impact steel

Because after anti-impact steel hidden inside the rear bumper, and many owners do not know is not installed after his car after anti-impact steel, it is not clear what role anti-impact steel in the end. Some crash after understanding the role of the owners of steel beams in order to install also racked up effort. We understand that there are car owners who spend more than 3000 yuan additional installation of a rear bumper beam. And usually put more bumper, but the outermost plastic parts. In many cases, it does play a decorative role. Really play a security role is to anti-impact steel inside the bumper. Normal thinking, bumper beams certainly should be equipped with two of the previous one, when people work in the rear, behind a single, effective when the rear-end people. Here that no rear bumper, in fact, that after the car did not anti-impact steels. Not installed after the car anti-impact steel, it did not play a role in the bumper. A perennial in the car repair master told us that not all cars have bumper beam.

Part of car manufacturers in the hundreds of thousands of economy cars omitted after Paul bumper main purpose is to save costs, the pursuit of maximum profit. Once the rear-end accident, because there is no protection after anti-impact steel, rear of the car will be deformed too large, striking force will directly undermine rear of the car, causing the rear casualties.

According to reports, China did not have relevant laws and regulations related to the post-anti-impact steels. Now only frontal crash test, side impact, but not involved in rear-end collision. The industry said that as important in terms of the car before the steel beams and the rear fender.

This article comes from baike edit released


Hydraulic Vane Motors

20150506Hydraulic vane motors are used in both industrial applications, such as screw-drive and injection moulding, and mobile applications, such as agricultural machinery. Hydraulic vane motors have less internal leakage than gear motors and are therefore better suited for lower speeds: about 100 rpm minimum. The maximum operating pressure of hydraulic vane motors is between 100 and 140 bar, and they’re used in both hydraulics and pneumatics.

Key features of hydraulic vane motors are:

Low noise level

Low flow pulsation

High torque at low speeds

Simple design

Easy serviceability

Vertical installation friendly

In order to operate correctly, the vanes of the rotor have to be pressed against the inside of the motor housing. This is generally taken care of with spiral or leaf springs, but rods can be used as well. This precaution prevents issues with stationary motors, such as the vanes sinking into the grooves and causing the oil to flow over it instead against it. Most often, the rotor is hollow, thus enabling it to be easily mounted on a spline shaft.

Typical parameters:

Displacement volume: 9 to 214 cc

Maximum pressure: up to 230 bar

Range of speeds: 100 to 2,500 rpm

Maximum torque: up to 650 Nm

This article from the DTA website edit released


What Is Alloy Steel?

20150504Steel is a metal alloy consisting mostly of iron, in addition to small amounts of carbon, depending on the grade and quality of the steel. Alloy steel is any type of steel to which one or more elements besides carbon have been intentionally added, to produce a desired physical property or characteristic. Common elements that are added to make alloy steel are molybdenum, manganese, nickel, silicon, boron, chromium, and vanadium.

Alloy steel is often subdivided into two groups: high alloy steels and low alloy steels. The difference between the two is defined somewhat arbitrarily. However, most agree that any steel that is alloyed with more than eight percent of its weight being other elements beside iron and carbon, is high alloy steel. Low alloy steels are slightly more common. The physical properties of these steels are modified by the other elements, to give them greater hardness, durability, corrosion resistance, or toughness as compared to carbon steel. To achieve such properties, these alloys often require heat treatment.

If the carbon level in a low alloy steel is in the medium to high range, it can be difficult to weld. If the carbon content is lowered to a range of 0.1% to 0.3%, and some of the alloying elements are reduced, the steel can achieve a greater weldability and formability while maintaining the strength that steel is known for. Such metals are classified as high strength, low alloy steels.

Perhaps the most well-known alloy steel is stainless steel. This is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10% chromium content. Stainless steel is more resistant to stains, corrosion, and rust than ordinary steel. It was discovered in 1913 by Harry Brearley of Sheffield, England, but the discovery was not announced to the world until 1915. Stainless steel is commonly used in table cutlery, jewelry, watch bands, surgical instruments, as well as in the aviation industry. Its familiar luster has also been appropriated for many famous architectural designs, such as the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri, and the pinnacle of the Chrysler Building in New York City.

In all types of alloy steel, the alloying elements tend to either form carbides or compounds, rather than simply being uniformly mixed in with the iron and carbon. Nickel, aluminum, and silicon are examples of the elements that form compounds in the steel. Tungsten and vanadium will form carbides, both of which increase the hardness and stability of the finished product.
This article comes from wiseGEEK edit released


What Causes A Flexplate To Crack

A cracked flexplate is almost always a sign of other problems. If not properly diagnosed it will occur again and often damage to the transmission may follow.


The flexplate takes the place of the flywheel on automatic transmission vehicles. It bolts to the end of the crankshaft and attaches to the torque converter. There is also a large gear attached, used by the starter to crank the engine. Because perfect alignment of the engine and transmission are not possible, the flexplate can absorb the minute misalignment.


As misalignment increases, the flexplate flexes more. This continual flexing eventually causes the metal to fatigue and the flexplate cracks. Misalignment should be less than .008 of an inch and the less the better. When the engine and transmission are manufactured, holes are drilled for bolts to attach them to each other. These holes are larger than the attaching bolts and do not align the two components. Precision dowel pins, that fit very tightly, hold the engine and transmission in alignment.

The dowel pins must be present to align the engine and transmission



When engines and transmissions are serviced or replaced, it is possible to omit these dowel pins. Sometimes they are left out and misalignment results. Other times, bolts are left out, improperly tightened, or foreign objects get caught between the engine and transmission, such as wires. When this occurs the engine/transmission alignment is thrown off and excessive flexing occurs in the flexplate.

There has been instances where engines are not manufactured properly


General Motors had problems with this on their 3.8L engines several years ago. The bolt pattern and dowel pins may be drilled improperly. When this occurs the vehicle is likely to have continued problems with flexplate breakage. A dial indicator may be used to check symmetrically designed engines. On non-symmetric engines, special jigs and complex measurements may be needed.

The more excessive the misalignment, the more frequent problems occur

Slight misalignment may only cause a single flexplate to break in the life of the vehicle. More severe misalignment can break a flexplate in 15,000 to 30,000 miles. Excessive crankshaft flange run-out or end plate can also cause flexplate cracking. This may occur in worn engines or engine that have been poorly rebuilt. An engine, transmission or torque converter that has been dropped may also have damage that will cause misalignment.

When a running engine ingest water or coolant, the crankshaft may be bent. Liquids will not compress and immense force is placed on the crankshaft and rods. This sometimes happens with a leaking intake manifold or driving on a flooded street. The bent crankshaft will have run-out at the flange and may have continued problems with flexplate cracking.

The same things that cause the flexplate to crack can also cause transmission problems. Damaged and leaking front seals and front transmission pumps are common symptoms.

When a flexplate cracks, it often produces a loud knocking noise as it rotates. The sound is very similar to a bad engine rod and is often misdiagnosed. Removing the bolts to the torque converter and sliding it back into the transmission will often reveal the real problem.

When a flexplate breaks, it is important to find the cause

Simply replacing the flexplate will result in recurrence. Trying to install a heavier duty flexplate will normally pass the problem to the transmission. Correcting the cause of the misalignment is the only repair that will give permanent results.

This article comes from AGCOAUTO edit released


Axial Vane Hydraulic Motors

1For robotics and other such applications where precise, repeatable positioning is paramount, our Axial Vane motors warrant your consideration. Available in both Servo and Industrial grades, they deliver these characteristics:

Axial Vane Cutaway Diagram


Hold position repeatedly and accurately

Mechanically “stiff” when locked

Smooth starts and slow-speed operation

Extremely long life — relatively few wearing parts

High starting torque — 97%

Manifold port capability

A host of options are also available:

Choice of output shafts

Dual relief valves, motor mounted

Rotor shaft extensions

SAE B flange mount

Tach generator packages

Brakes, rear mounted

This article comes from Von Ruden editor released